Associate Professor, Department of Geography, Payam-e Noor University, Tehran
Outbreak of security, hygienic, and … problems has caused civil managers of Birjand to realize the existence of marginalization phenomenon within the city; and seek to detect the procedure of development and organization, specially descending social consequences of this issue. The research is descriptive and applicable and is implemented to target the detection of the effective factors on forming of marginalization and its specific consequences (especially social issues). Rule-based sampling of hidden populations, a sample of 300 people is selected and after data collection this sample gets developed to 400 increase the level confidence and accuracy. The required data is collected through the verified questionnaire which its perpetuity and validity were assigned. These data are analyzed within descriptive and inferential statistics, especially single variable K-square tests. The results showed that immigration from the villages which have lost their productive resources caused by different criteria, especially drought, is the most important factor for creating and developing of marginalized areas in the city. Concerning social consequences of this issue should be argued that there is a connection between the intensity of marginalization and increase of relative deprivation of marginalized people; that finally leads to spread of poverty in marginalized areas.