A Sociological Explanation of Different forms of Citizen’s Participation in the City of Khalkhal


1 Department of Sociology, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Social Sciences, University of Tehran


This study aims to have a sociological explanation of the different forms of participation among Khalkhal citizens and the factors affecting it. In this study, the important issue is attention to dimensions of participation. The theoretical framework and model were presented by using the theory of Talcott Parsons, Lipset, Habermas, De Tocqueville, Lerner, and Rostow. This research was a survey and the structural validity and reliability were tested through Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The statistical population consisted of over 18 year old citizens of Khalkhal who were 36,000 according to the Census Bureau. Through a multi-stage cluster sampling method, 380 people were selected as a sample. To analyze the data, two methods of descriptive and inferential statistics and SPSS and Amos graphics softwares were used. After preparing the matrix, onedimensional and two-dimensional information tables were set. This study aims to explain the different kinds of participation (social, cultural, psychological, economical and political) among the Khalkhal adult population. The results indicate that the independent variables of group bonds, social alienation, mass media and socioeconomic status had significant relationship with participation as the dependent variable. Also, the results of Structural Equation Model show that all model fitness indices were over 0.90. It means that, based on the defined measures, the model has moved away from the dependent model and become closer to a saturated model. Since that AGFI=0.904, TLI=0.911 and IFI =0.915 are close to one, it shows the fitness of the model and RMSEA=0.078 shows the weak performance of the residuals in the model.