The Effectiveness of Philosophy Education on Metacognitive Beliefs among High School Students

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Qazvin Branch, International University of Qazvin, Qazvin, Iran

2 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Human Sciences, Saveh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Saveh, Iran

3 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Main Branch, Tehran, Iran


The objective of this research is determining the effectiveness of philosophy education on metacognitive beliefs among high school students. The objective of the research is applied and the method of data gathering is semi-experimental, pre-test and post-test with control group. Statistical population includes high school students in district 3 of Tehran in the first mid-term of educational year of 2018-2019 (N=6500). The sample size was considered 30 and for sampling the method of random clustering sampling was used. Data gathering tool, was metacognitive questionnaire of Wells (1997) including 30 articles and 5 subscales with titles of positive beliefs about anxiety, cognitive trust, cognitive self-recognition, negative beliefs about uncontrollability of thoughts, beliefs about requiring to control thoughts in the pattern of four-grade scale and holding educational course of philosophy for children for experiment group for 13 60-miniute sessions based on “philosophy for children, lesson plans” of Michael Burroughs. For data analysis, covariance analysis was used. The results indicated that philosophy education affects metacognitive beliefs among students of first grade high school, as it improves the level of metacognitive beliefs with effectiveness rate of 5.34.