Document Type: Research Paper
Ph.D. Student of History, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Professor of History, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Assistant Professor of History, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Mirza Melkum Khan Nezim al-Dowleh, the son of Mirza Ya'qub, was born in Isfahan in 1871. He is one of the most prominent intellectuals in the Qajar era. According to Ismail Raein, the author of book Freemasonry (House of Forgetfulness), Mirza Melkum Khan has complex and controversial personality, or in better words his personality is sum of opposites and entitled as a man with thousand faces. He was a politician, thinker, writer and journalist, and leading advocate of modernity in Iran at the era of Qajar. He believes in pure adoption with Western civilization and also calling for giving privileges to foreign countries. Besides presenting himself as one of strict adherents of royal government, he really believes in the idea of liberation and the rule of law. His first major political experience was the mission of Paris which, after returning to Iran established Freemasonry (House of Forgetfulness). His involvement in awarding Scott Reuter and his scandal in the Lottery Prize eventuated to the despoiling of his relationship with Nasser-al-Din Shah and also through establishing of the London Law Newspaper, began his struggle to restrict the power of the monarchy. In this research, the writer attempts to answer this question, why Mirza Malkum Khan wanted to restrict the power of the king through the constitutional movement?