Comparison of Ethnic and Religious Identity based on Socio-Cultural Variables among the Middle School Students in District 17 of Tehran

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Student of Sociology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor of Sociology, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


Social identity is a constant and permanent process that changes social situations based on individual experiences in these situations. Religious and ethnic identities are two dimensions of social identity that are of great importance in Iranian society. Due to the ethnic diversity in Iran and the proximity of ethnic cultures through migration, ethnic identity is noticeable. Religious identity also is important on account of the scope that covers social, cultural, and political spheres. The results which are profited from symbolic co-activation indicated that religious and ethnic identities had different averages among students based on variables of civil disobedience, the influence of mass media, and cultural components, such as values and norms. Since student’s social status was identical, the average ethnic and religious identities didn’t show any significant difference at the 95% confidence level. Religious identity didn’t have different averages based on the degree of compliance concerning individual expectations and demands with social opportunity; this is due to the sphere in which religion is influential. However, ethnic identity has secured different averages based on these variables. Therefore, although religious identity, like ethnic identity, considers as one of the dimensions of social identity, its influence on identification based on role-taking is greater than other dimensions of social identity.