Sociology Dep., Islamic Azad University, Tehran central branch, Tehran, Iran
To the extent that a society is to work, there exist a need for a cooperative process, including Weber’s and Merton’s note of common means and goals. But at the same time, there exist no societal process without involving conflict; (conflict in a dynamic and dialectical sense.) Dealing with this problematic situation the emergence of “division of labor”, as a compulsive social differentiation, seemed to be inevitable. With the developmental process of societies, the division of labor, as the other processes, became more and more complex. The problem, here, is to analysis, theoretically and comparatively, the nature of Marx’s, and Durkheim’s theories of division of labor, concerning the notion of structuration as used by Giddens.